The past ten years have witnessed a revolution in science with the advent of new ultrafast optical and X-ray domain methodologies enabled by new instrumentation, such as X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) and table-top HHG sources of Extreme UV pulses radiation. In this presentation, I will focus on developments in deep-UV (sub-300 nm) to X-ray spectroscopies. I will present some results of 2D deep-UV studies of biological systems, revealing hitherto unknown electron transfer processes, [1,2] and then proceed to presenting recent ultrafast deep-UV Circular dichroism studies of molecular systems, [3–5] which promise applications for biological systems. I will then present the first results on the X-ray helical dichroism of molecular systems,  and move onto recent developments in ultrafast non-linear X-ray science, focusing on hard X-ray transient grating spectroscopy, [7,8] as well as subsequent developments.
 C. Consani, G. Aubock, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, Ultrafast Tryptophan-to-Haem Electron Transfer in Myoglobins Revealed by UV 2D Spectroscopy, Science 339, 1586 (2013).
 R. Monni, A. Al Haddad, F. van Mourik, G. Auböck, and M. Chergui, Tryptophan-to-Heme Electron Transfer in Ferrous Myoglobins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, 18 (2015).
 M. Oppermann, B. Bauer, T. Rossi, F. Zinna, J. Helbing, J. Lacour, and M. Chergui, Ultrafast Broadband Circular Dichroism in the Deep Ultraviolet, Optica, OPTICA 6, 56 (2019).
 M. Oppermann, J. Spekowius, B. Bauer, R. Pfister, M. Chergui, and J. Helbing, Broad-Band Ultraviolet CD Spectroscopy of Ultrafast Peptide Backbone Conformational Dynamics, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10, 11 (2019).
 M. Oppermann, F. Zinna, J. Lacour, and M. Chergui, Chiral Control of Spin-Crossover Dynamics in Fe(II) Complexes, Nat. Chem. (2022).
 J. R. Rouxel et al., Hard X-Ray Helical Dichroism of Disordered Molecular Media, Nat. Photon. 16, 8 (2022).
 C. Svetina et al., Towards X-Ray Transient Grating Spectroscopy, Opt. Lett., OL 44, 574 (2019).
 J. R. Rouxel et al., Hard X-Ray Transient Grating Spectroscopy on Bismuth Germanate, Nat. Photon. 15, 499 (2021).